Request: (Writer’s Username: Themich)

Part 1: (Page 1)
Read: Harry, B., Sturges, K. M., & Klinger, J. K. (2005). Mapping the process: An exemplar of process and challenge in grounded theory analysis. Educational Researcher, 34(2), 3-13.
Read the article listed above and provide your impressions. In one page, summarize the authors’ experiences in conducting a grounded theory study in an educational setting. What were some of the challenges they faced? What are your thoughts in general on conducting qualitative research in the field of education?

Part 3: Page 6 (Do part 2 [below] first)
(This assignment should be done after doing the assignment below.) When you’re finished with the assignment below, answer the following questions in one page Briefly summarize your article critique. In your opinion, what were the article’s main strengths and weaknesses? What might you do differently in the implementation or the write-up?

Part 2: (page 2-5)
For this assignment, please select one of the five traditions (use the Phenomenological approach) and provide a brief description of 1) your topic or research question, 2), the approach, 3) your sampling and recruitment strategies, and 4) an outline of each step of the data collection and analysis process. When describing your approach and outlining the steps of your data collection and analysis, be sure to provide a rationale for your methodological choices and cite your sources. For example, if you will be conducting open coding, what are the steps and how did you learn about this approach-what is your source? Your paper should be between 3-5 pages. When citing the literature, please remember to follow APA style. (Learning Outcome 3)

Below is the rubric is previous work I’ve done on this subject:
Rubric for “Mini” Method Paper Assignment 4
Criteria 0-14 points 15-17 points 18-20 points
A description of the research question/topic selected, the approach and justification for its appropriateness to the student’s selected topic Paper is lacking a research question and/or an approach to qualitative inquiry or the approach is not appropriate to answer the research question presented The student provides a brief description of the research question and approach; however, is lacking the rationale for its appropriateness to answer the research question Student includes a description of the research question/topic selected, the approach utilized and the justification for its appropriateness to the student’s selected topic, such that the student demonstrates a clear understanding of the need to select an approach that will best answer the research question and provide a justification of the selected methodology to the aims of the research
Student provides an outline of the data collection and analysis process, including sampling and recruitment strategies. Student’s outline of the data collection and/or analysis process is missing and/or does not mention sampling and recruitment strategies. Student presents the steps in the data collection and analysis process; however, is missing one, or more critical steps. Mentions sampling and recruitment strategies; however does not describe in any detail Student provides a complete and accurate outline of the data collection and analysis process which adheres to the approach described. Provides sampling and recruitment strategies, including a rationale.
Adheres to APA format; coherent; grammatically correct. Multiple errors in APA format. Grammatically incorrect, awkward construction and/or poor flow of ideas. Some APA errors. Writing shows evidence of self-editing with some construction and/or flow problems. Accurate use of APA format with minimal errors. Coherent development of the ideas using well-formed sentences and flowing paragraphs. Grammatically correct.

The purpose of this research study is to determine the effects of popular social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter and other social media technologies (i.e. texting, chat) on the oral and written communication skills of American college students. Social media was designed to improve communication among peers, colleagues, family, friends, and associates, instructors of all academic levels. In addition, social media, social software, and social networking sites (textese) seem to have a great potential as learning and teaching tools. However, what is noteworthy and relevant about these technologies is research has also shown that dependence on social media has naturally reduced the face-to-face interactions formed among students, parents, and professors because of disengagement stimulated by electronic media, texting, and social media compositions, hiding the features associated with a student’s real character and voice (MacArthur, 2007). The more the students depend on social media to interact with superiors and associates, they will use increasingly textese and abbreviate writings to convey their options, and the more they will find opportunities to avoid confrontations.
As such, there is a great concern that because of social media’s prevalence, writing skills in the classroom have and will continue to deteriorate, reversing competent writing skills because of textese. As such, the current paper is designed with the purpose of investigating the effects of social media and texting on college students’ writing. This research aims at exploring the use of popular social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter and social software such as Wikis on how college students speak and write in the classroom. As it is important to study and compare the reading fluency and writing skills in the age group that uses textese the most, the following questions are relevant. The comparisons between frequent textese users and infrequent textese users will show if frequent use of textese has impeded and/or will impede reading and writing skillsof college students.
Below are the research questions that will guide this current study:
1. Is there a significant relationship between frequent use of textese on college students’ reading fluency and writing skills?
2. Is there a significant relationship between frequent use of textese and the deterioration of college students’ reading fluency and writing skills?
3. How does the frequent use of social media affect vocabulary and composition skills of college students?
4. How does the reading fluency and writing skills of frequent textese users compare to the reading fluency and writing skills of infrequent textese users?

Baker, I. (2007). Txts r gr8 but not in exms. Times Educational supplement, 4723, 20.
Baron, N. (2004). See you online: Gender issues in college student use of instant messaging. Journal of Language and social Psychology, 23, 397-423.
Carrington, V. (2004). Texts and literacies of the Shi Jinrui. British journal of Sociology of Education,25, 215-228.
Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the internet (2nd edition). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University.
Drouin, M., & Davis, C. (2009). R u txting? Is the use of text speak hurting your literacy? Journal of Literacy Research, 41(1), 46-67.
Drouin, M A. (2011). College students text messaging, use of textese and literacy skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(1), 67-75.
Fox, R. (2003). News Track . Communications of the ACM 46(5), 9-10.
Graham, S. &. (2007). Writing next: Effective Strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools. A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Alliance for Excellent Education, 67-78.
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge.
Lenhart, S. A. (Apr 29, 2008). Education, Teens, Email, New Media Ecology- Writing, Technology and Teens . WAMU: American University Radio.
MacArthur, G. S. (2007). Best practices in writing instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
Plester, B. W. (2008). Txt msg n school literacy: Does texting and knowledge of text abbreviations adversely affect children’s literacyLiteracy, 42, 137-144.
Puglisi, M. (Tuesday, October 12, 2010). Social networking hurts the communication skills of college students. West Virginia: West Virginia student publication.
Ryker and Kleen. (2010). Texting and the Efficacy of Mnemonics: An Exploratory Study. A report to Information Systems Educators Conference. Nashville
Tagliamonte, S. &. (2008). Linguistic ruin? LOL! Instant messaging and teen language. American Speech, 83, 3-34.
Yuan, L. (2005- August 11). Text messages sent by cell phone finally catch on US. Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), B1-B3.

Text messaging first occurred in 1993 when an engineering student working for Nokia sent the first text message (O’Donnell, 2003). Since then, text messaging has increased exponentially. From widespread text messaging, users had to develop an easy way to use the alphabet-based form of messaging. Abbreviation and textese emerged as a major feature in texting. Textese is the abbreviated form of language used in social technologies such as instant messaging, social networking, chatrooms, etc. Recently, there has been negative attention centering around the use of textese and its potentially negative effects on literacy skills. Some are concerned that it will affect standard English and some others are concerned that use of textese will cause the current generation to forget standard English as today’s youth grows older. In this study, MA Drouin examines the use of text messaging and textese influence on literacy skills such as reading accuracy, spelling and reading fluency in a test population of American college students. In this study, the participants described using text messaging and textese more often than in previous years. Their rate of use of textese use changed according to circumstances. The study observed a considerable positive relationship between text messaging regularity with spelling and reading fluency. However, it also observed significant detrimental relationships between textese usage in certain technologies such as social networking and email with reading accuracy).
Another trend English Educators are observing, as outlined on the College English Association (CEA) website, is using new mediums as a tool in the classroom. There are many schools that are incorporating eBooks in English classrooms in conjunction with the use of the ipad and cell phone compatible learning “apps” tools. According to Jared Bistrong, Multimedia Specialist at Brown Mackie College in Miami, “Brown Mackie College is giving brand new, 2nd generation ipads to newly enrolled students” (J. Bistrong, personal communication, May 22, 2012). Education programs internationally are starting to be more accepting of interactive programs.
The Problem
In the past five years or so, teachers and professors alike have observed a significant change in the writing skills of high school and college students for the worse. The climate in English writing is that social networking is hurting communication skills at the college level (Puglisi, 2010). Currently, The National Council of Teachers of English recommends teaching Social Media Literacy to separate it from formal academic writing. Their belief is that once one separates the writing mediums in regards to a teaching discipline, students will separate them as writing genres themselves as they do with writing for academics, journalism, literature, etc. Although, there is negative attention surrounding the use of textese, educators are hopeful through research, evaluation, and curriculum changes, they can change the downward shift in Standard English language skills and advert the potentially negative effects on literacy skills.
Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to uncover the truth about social technology and its influence on reading and writing skills of young adults. In paragraph 4, Drouin makes the case for exploring this subject further. She hypothesizes from a theoretical point a view that “parents, educators and media sources may not be
entirely unfounded” (2011). The study offered theories from other well-known historical studies that look at memory to connect how texting can be detrimental. Two such memory theories, Retroactive interference and decay deal with the retaining of information. Retroactive interference proposes that information presented at a later time may interfere with information presented at an earlier time (McGeoch 1932; Britt 1935). While, decay theory states that learned information that is not accessed may be less accessible over time (Brown 1958). This information leads me to believe that students can very easily forget grammar and spelling rules learned in elementary when they start texting and abbreviating later in life. It is very common to leave off subjects and linking verbs in text messages as it is assumed that the receiving party will understand the subject and linking verb.

Key Findings
This study evaluated text messaging and textese usage on literacy skills. It observed 80
college students. Thirty-four were texters using textese and 46 were did not use textese. It assessed their proficiency and familiarity with textese as well in addition to their literacy skills according to standardized literacy levels and misspellings of common textese users. The results exemplified that textese users used vocabulary more proficiently. Significantly, there were no observable differences between the two groups’ standardized literacy scores. The analyses showed that the use of textese is not related to poor reading and writing performance. On the other hand, over 50% of the college students in this both groups of the sample, specified that they considered usage of textese a hindrance on their reading and writing literacy skills.
Opportunities for Further Research.
Although this study focuses on texting and social media in the college student population, it only looks at a segment of the population in one area of the country. I see an opportunity to observe textese usage on E.S.L. (English as a Second Language) students. Although globalization and technology have allowed businesses to expand and have brought people from all walks of life together, it has also provided a platform that shuns reading. Barker (2007) asserts that secondary school teachers are seeing “textisms” (text abbreviations) in school assignments. As an English instructor, I have witnessed first hand the detrimental writing problems that technologies like the Internet and social media has birthed. My students are using computer language prominently in their class assignments and forgoing proofreading. Marcus (2010) reports that with spellcheckers and the proliferation of social media, teachers, admissions officers, and employers are seeing more and more papers littered with grammatical errors. Undoubtedly, this type of technological environment poses an obstacle for how students read and learn. While working for Inlingua Language Centers, my students would argue with me that I was teaching them incorrectly when I corrected their improper usage of subject and verb agreement. They mentioned how they heard Americans on the streets and read content online such as “They was” or “He don’t” and assumed that was correct. Such misusages are so prevalent by native speakers that my students didn’t realize the language was being butchered. Lam (2006) emphasizes that there are multitudes of social and multi-media environments that affect what we read. In my doctoral studies, I hope to examine more closely the relationship between cultural influence on reading literacy, grammar, writing, assessment, and learning.
The Rationale
My study centers on the field of social networking and writing skills, so I searched for dissertations that dealt with that subject matter. However, I was unable to find substantial dissertation material related to social networking’s impact on writing skills. I contacted the library, and they provided me with this journal article by Michelle A. Drouin. This journal article does a great job of mixing the quantitative and qualitative data to present a broad perspective on the issue.


Barker, I. (2007). Txts r gr8 but not in exams. Times Educational Supplement, 4723, 20.
Britt S.H. (1935) Retroactive inhibition: a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin 32, 381??”440.
Brown J. (1958) Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 10, 12??”21.
Drouin, M A. (2011). College students text messaging, use of textese and literacy skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(1), 67-75.
Lam, W. (2006). Re-Envisioning Language, Literacy, and the Immigrant Subject in New
Mediascapes. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 1(3)
Marcus, D (2010). As spell-check replaces proofreading, students learn the hard way that
mistakes can really matter. New York Times Upfront, 143 (7)
McGeoch J.A. (1932) Forgetting and the law of disuse. Psychological Review 39, 352??”3 70.
O’Donnell, F. (2003). False dawn of the photo phone boom. The Scotsman.
Puglisi, M. (2010). The Daily Athenaeum. Retrieved from
Long, M. H. (2005). Second language needs analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nielson, K (2011). Self-study with language learning software in the workplace: what
happens?. Language, Learning & Technology. 153: p110.
Snyder, W., & Stromswold, K. (2007). The Structure and Acquisition of English Dative Constructions. Linguistic Inquiry, 28(2), 281-317. JSTOR. Retrieved from
Ursula, O. (2010). Nafsa-national association for foreign student advisers. Retrieved from

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