Exercises: (10 points each) please answer in sentence format
• How are urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values used to assess kidney function?
• How are the locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis used to differentiate the causes of kidney disease?
• How do prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal types of acute renal failure differ in etiology, prognosis, clinical manifestations, and management?
• How do the various forms of glomerulonephritis affect the permeability of the basement membrane?
• What effect does urinary obstruction have on glomerular filtration, urinary stasis, and infection risk?

Professional Development (20 points each)
1. From the Brashers textbook, please complete the following case study: please use essay format
o Chapter 14: Urinary Tract Infection

Please use essay format for lit search
2. Perform a literature search in a database of professional journal articles on urinary incontinence. How do the pathophysiologic characteristics and management of stress, urge, overflow, and mixed incontinence differ? Be sure to address both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management strategies. Write a summary including at least three references beyond your textbook.

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