All files associated with this assignment have been emailed to snrcs1@aol.com

I need copies of the references used in the paper (preferably via email). I am attaching the applicable portions of the dissertation guide below. I will forward a copy of the accepted proposal as well as the survey instrument by email today. The data will be sent by email no later than tomorrow. The data must be analyzed using SPSS (version 10.0 or later). Also, please use the standard chapter layout (5 chapters) instead of the layout of chapters listed in the proposal. If you have any questions please contact me by email and I will respond within a few hours!!

DISSERTATION STYLE
SECTIONS OF A DISSERTATION
Table of Contents
Format
Requirements for format and final production of the dissertation and thesis, as specified in this and the next chapter, are to meet University Microfilms, Inc. standards for microfilming, and American Library Association (ALA) suggestions for preserving archival copies of the dissertation and thesis.
All TUI doctoral dissertations are microfilmed. The microfilms are sent to University Microfilms, Inc. (UMI), which fills orders for either paper or microfilm copies of the dissertation.
Many of the procedures specified are intended to ensure optimal microfilm copies.
Arrangement of Contents
This list indicates the order in which to place the parts of the dissertation. All sections are mandatory unless designated as optional.
? TITLE PAGE
? COPYRIGHT PAGE
? ABSTRACT
? BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
? DEDICATION (optional)
? ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
? TABLE OF CONTENTS
? LIST OF TABLES
? LIST OF FIGURES (or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS)
? LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (optional)
? LIST OF SYMBOLS (optional)
? PREFACE (optional)
? TEXT
? APPENDIX (or APPENDICES)
? BIBLIOGRAPHY (or REFERENCES, or WORKS CITED)
? GLOSSARY (optional)
? INDEX (optional)
Page Composition
The following are guidelines for page composition. If in doubt about the acceptability of font size, legibility of equations, spacing, corrections, etc., consult with the Dissertation Adviser/Chair. Never use as a precedent a dissertation on file in the various University Libraries; requirements have changed over the years, and the binding process changes apparent margins.
Typeface
The entire text of the dissertation or thesis, including page numbers, must be produced with the same font or typeface. Exceptions are made only for tables and figures produced by different technology or by graphic artists.
Characters Per Inch
The general requirement is that only fonts giving 10 or 12 characters per inch (CPI) may be used. Twelve CPI is the smallest type allowed for readability on microfilm. To determine the CPI: Place a ruler under a line of text and count the average number of characters in an inch; the number may vary if using justification or a printer that gives proportional spacing. Hint: You must be able to count 10 or 12 characters within the space of one inch on most of the words. Footnotes may be single-spaced in a 10-point size but must be in the same font as the rest of the text.
If using a Macintosh computer for the dissertation or thesis, the following fonts and font sizes are acceptable:
? Courier 12
? Palatino 12
? Bookman 12
? New Century Schoolbook 12
? Helvetica 12 or 14
? Times 14 (Times 12 is not acceptable)
Symbol 12 is acceptable for symbols. Users of TeX and LaTeX may use CMR 12 font in addition to any font that meets the above specifications. Other fonts may be acceptable. Check the font with the dissertation adviser/chair.
Margins after photocopying must be at least:
? Left margin: One and one-half inches (1 1/2″) or slightly larger.
? Top, bottom, right margins: One inch (1″) or slightly larger.
These margins are absolutely essential so that the dissertation can be microfilmed in its entirety for interlibrary loan. These margins apply to all tables and figures. Hint: It is recommended that margins be set at 1.6 for the left margin and 1.1 for all other margins since the photocopying process may enlarge the text by as much as 2%. Use a ruler to measure the margins on each printed page.

Spacing
The dissertation must be double-spaced throughout except for quotations and footnotes. Bibliographies may be single-spaced within each entry, but must be double-spaced between each entry. The table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, and lengthy tables may also be single-spaced. Double spacing needs to contain three lines of type and three spaces per vertical inch.
Hint: To check that the font is three lines per inch, place a ruler vertically on the page and measure from the top of the first line to the top of the fourth line (see sample page – Chapter One).
Equations and Formulas
All equations and formulas should be typed. Hand insertions are acceptable when a typewriter, word processor, or computer cannot make the symbol or where the hand symbol is better. Equations may be inserted from a non-matching typewriter or laser font as well. All subscripts and superscripts must be large enough to be read on microfilm. To ensure readability on microfilm, test a page with sub- or superscripts by photocopying the page using a 25% text reduction. If the sub- or superscripts are still readable, then they are probably large enough.
Corrections
Strikeovers, correction fluid, and correction tape are not acceptable in the filed copies.
Widows and orphans
Avoid “widows” (short lines ending a paragraph at the top of a page) as much as possible. A heading or subheading at the bottom of a page that is not followed by text is called an “orphan.” A dissertation will not be accepted if it contains “orphans.”
Justification
If one is using a computer or word processor, use justified margins only if the printer does this well, i.e., does not separate punctuation from characters and does not leave large gaps in the text.
Titles of Sections

The following sections must be titled accordingly, and should be in all capital letters. All titles are centered for the preliminary pages.
? ABSTRACT (scroll down for further information regarding abstract)
? BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
? ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
? TABLE OF CONTENTS
? LIST OF TABLES
? LIST OF FIGURES (or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS)
? LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
? LIST OF SYMBOLS
? PREFACE
? APPENDIX
? BIBLIOGRAPHY (or REFERENCES, or WORKS CITED)
Do not write the following titles on their respective pages: Title Page, Copyright Page, and Dedication. Although the sections must be titled as described above, chapter headings may be included which conform to the standard of the student”s academic field.

Pagination
The following plan of page numbering has been standardized and must be observed.
Pagination for preliminary pages. Preliminary pages include all the sections that precede the text. They are arranged and numbered according to the following format, using small Roman numerals, in the same size font as the text, centered between the margins, at least 1/2 inch from the bottom of the page:
Pagination Example

Preliminary Pages Page Numbers Pagination
TITLE PAGE (i) page counted but number not typed on page
COPYRIGHT PAGE (ii) page counted but number not typed on page
ABSTRACT page(s) not counted, not numbered
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH iii type number on page
DEDICATION (optional) iv type number on page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v type number on page
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi type number(s) on page(s)
LIST OF TABLES vii type number(s) on page(s)
LIST OF FIGURES or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS viii type number(s) on page(s)
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ix type number(s) on (optional) page(s)
LIST OF SYMBOLS (optional) x type number(s) on page(s)
PREFACE (optional) xi type number(s) on page(s)
If the dissertation contains tables, figures, or illustrations, the appropriate list must be included in the preliminary pages. If any of the above sections are more than one page in length, each page is given the next Roman numeral, e.g., the first page of the Biographical Sketch is on page iii; subsequent pages of the Sketch would be iv, v, etc. All Roman numerals must be at the bottom of each page, centered between the margins, whether or not the page starts a new section.

Pagination for the body of the dissertation.
The body includes:
? Text
? Appendix (or Appendices)
? Bibliography (or References, or Works Cited)
Use continuous Arabic numbers for these sections, beginning with page 1. The Arabic numbers start in the text and the numbering continues through the appendices and the bibliography.
Chapters begin on new pages. There should not be breaks between sections or before tables or figures, unless they occur naturally. On pages carrying major headings, such as the first page of a chapter, the first page of each appendix and the first page of the bibliography, the number is centered between the margins, no less than one-half inch (1/2″) from the bottom of the page. Exception: If the bibliography is placed at the end of each chapter, a page break needs to be placed at the end of the text and the bibliography started on the next page. The page number stays at the top of the page, since it is considered part of the entire chapter and not a separate section.
Page numbers are placed at the top of the page for charts, maps, illustrations, all pages after the first page of the bibliography, and all pages after the first page of each chapter and each appendix. The page number is placed either at the top centered between the margins, (one-half inch [1/2″] clearance from the top of the page), or at the top right corner (one-half inch [1/2″] clearance from the top of the page, and one inch from the right edge of the page). Be consistent–select one of these two formats. There should always be at least a double space between the page number and the text.
All pages, beginning with page one of the text, must be numbered consecutively.
Minimal adjustments in page numbering are allowed to correct mistakes in numbering. For example, if two pages are numbered 16 (i.e., a typographical error), the second page is labeled 16a. If two pages have been added between 16 and 17, they should be numbered 16a and 16b. If pages 16 and 17 are removed, page 15 should then be numbered 15-17. Pages for all figures and tables may not be numbered with an “a” for convenience in numbering; only minimal adjustments may be made.
Two-Volume Dissertations
Measure the thickness of the dissertation to determine if it is one or two volumes. Approximately three inches of paper will fit in one volume.
In dissertations with two volumes, the second should continue the numbering of the first part. Each volume should contain a title page with the words Volume I (or Volume II) added to the page, directly beneath the title. Include this information in the Table of Contents. The title page of the second volume is counted as a text page in the Arabic numeral counting, but a page number is not typed on the page. Subsequent pages should reflect this count.
Title Page
Title Selection. The words in the title of the dissertation should be selected carefully to represent as accurately as possible the subject content. The words in the title are important access points to researchers who may use computerized keyword search techniques to identify works in various subject areas.
Authors of scientific and engineering dissertations or theses should use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts or subscripts, Greek letters, etc. Examples: “Chromosomal Localization of the Alpha- and Beta-globulin of the Chicken, Gallus domesticus” and “A Study of High Critical Transition Temperature Superconductivity in the Neodymium-barium-copper Oxide System.” (From Publishing Your Dissertation, Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, Inc., 1997)
Title Page Format. The title is in all capital letters, centered within the left and right margins, double-spaced, about 1 1/2 inches from the top of the page.
At the vertical and horizontal center of the margins and double-spaced are the following five lines (all centered):
? Line 1: A Dissertation
? Line 2: Presented to the Faculty of the College of Health Sciences
? Line 3: of Touro University International
? Line 4: in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
? Line 5: Doctor of Philosophy in Health Sciences (or other appropriate degree)
The following three lines are centered within the margins approximately 1.1/2 inches from the bottom of the page and are double-spaced:
? Line 1: by
? Line 2: Student”s Name
? Line 3: Month and Year of degree conferral (no comma between month and year)
The student”s name must appear as it is on file in the University Registrar”s Office. The date on the title page should be the date of degree conferral, not the date the dissertation is submitted. The dissertation title and the student”s name must be exactly the same wherever they appear in the dissertation: title page, copyright page, abstract page for doctoral dissertation, and Approval Form.
Students submitting two-volume dissertations should refer to the page that describing two-volume dissertation, for further instructions regarding the title page.
Copyright and Registration
Copyright law involves many complex issues that are relevant to the graduate student both in protecting his or her own work and in referencing the work of others. Discussion of copyright in this publication is not meant to substitute for the legal advice of qualified attorneys. A more detailed discussion of the copyright law can be found in the publication from University Microfilms, Inc. entitled Copyright Law and the Doctoral Dissertation: Guidelines to Your Legal Rights and Responsibilities by Kenneth D. Crews. Copies of this publication can be found at in many on-line libraries.
Copyright protection automatically exists from the time the work is created in fixed form, and the copyright immediately becomes the property of the author. Registration with the United States Copyright Office is not required to secure copyright; it is a legal formality to place on public record the basic facts of a particular copyright. Although not a condition of copyright protection itself, registering the copyright is ordinarily necessary before any infringement suits can be filed in court.
If a student chooses not to copyright, s/he must insert a blank page behind the title page and does not need to sign the bottom of the Dissertation Approval and License to Use Copyrighted Material form.
To register the copyright: A doctoral student may authorize University Microfilms, Inc. to file, on his or her behalf, an application for registration. This request is made on the Microfilm Agreement and requires payment of a fee ($45 in fall 1999) by money order, certified bank check, or cashier”s check, payable to University Microfilms, Inc. This expense is the responsibility of the PhD candidate.
Whether you decide to register the copyright or not, a notice of copyright should appear as the sole item on the page immediately following the title page. The page is counted, but the number is not typed on this page. The copyright notice is centered vertically and horizontally within the margins as follows:
? 200__ Student”s Name
The copyright symbol is a lower case “c”, which must be circled. On Macintosh computers, the symbol is generally obtained by pressing the “option” and “g” keys simultaneously. If the font does not have the ? symbol, type the “c” and circle it by hand. On PC”s, go to the insert menu, choose symbol, and highlight the ? symbol. The student”s name must appear exactly as it is on file at the Registrar”s Office and throughout the dissertation. The date on this page is the year of conferral of degree.
Additional information and forms from the U.S. Copyright Office are available on the Web. Forms may be downloaded and printed for use in registering or renewing a claim to copyright. The forms and the information may be accessed and downloaded through the Copyright Office homepage.
Abstract
Abstract for doctoral dissertation. The abstract should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. University Microfilms, Inc. requires that the abstract be typed (double-spaced) with the same typeface as the dissertation and that it not exceed 350 words. An abstract that meets the requirements is generally about 1 1/2 double-spaced pages. The abstract may not be more than two pages, even if fewer than 350 words long. All paper quality, font, margin, and spacing requirements that apply to the text apply to the abstract also. The abstract pages are neither numbered nor counted.

The heading of the Ph D. abstract is as follows:

TITLE OF DISSERTATION
Student”s Name, Ph.D.
Touro University International University 200__ (year of conferral)
Begin the title about 1 1/2 inches (or at least 1 inch) down from the top of the page. The dissertation title is centered between the left and right margins and appears in all capital letters. The student”s name must appear as it is on file in the University Registrar”s Office. The title and name must be exactly the same wherever they appear in the dissertation. The date on the abstract page should be the year of conferral, not the date the dissertation was submitted. Skip one double-spaced line and begin the abstract on the same page.
For the two archival copies of the dissertation that are to be submitted to the University, each abstract must be signed by the student”s Advisor/Chairperson in the upper right corner of the first page of the abstract. The signature indicates that the abstract has been approved and that the entire dissertation is in finished form and acceptable for microfilming. Both of the signatures must be original.
Biographical Sketch
The biographical sketch must be written in the third person and contain the student”s Health Sciencesal background. It may contain additional biographical facts. The heading is the phrase “BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH” in all capital letters, centered within the margins at the top of the page. Font, margin, spacing, and paper quality requirements remain the same as those of the text. The page is numbered at the bottom of the page, centered within the margins, using lowercase Roman numerals.
Dedication
The dedication is optional. It does not have a heading, is usually centered on the page, can be in italics or regular type. The page is numbered at the bottom center of the page, using lowercase Roman numerals.
Acknowledgments
The acknowledgments may be written in the first person. Students whose research has been funded by outside grants should check with the principal investigator of the grant regarding proper acknowledgment of the funding source. Most outside funding sources require some statement of acknowledgment of the support; some also require a disclaimer from responsibility for the results. The heading is the phrase “ACKNOWLEDGMENTS” in all capital letters, centered within the margins at the top of the page. The acknowledgments page(s) should use the same fonts, margins, spacing, and paper quality as the text of the dissertation . The page is numbered at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins, using lowercase Roman numerals.
Table of Contents
Any standard format may be used for the table of contents. The only requirements are that the same font is used as in the text; page numbers must be listed for each chapter (sections may be included, as well); and that each page of the table of contents is numbered at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins, using lowercase Roman numerals. The heading is the phrase “TABLE OF CONTENTS” in all capital letters, centered within the margins at the top of the page. In most cases the preliminary sections, except for the title page, copyright page, and abstract are listed in the table of contents.
Lists of Figures, Tables, or Illustrations
There must be separate pages for LIST OF FIGURES, LIST OF TABLES, or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, even if there is only one example of each. Lists must contain enough of the titles or descriptions so that readers can locate particular items using the list. Lists must contain the page number on which each table, figure, or illustration is found, as in a table of contents. It may not be necessary to include entire figure captions or table headings. The page is numbered at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins, using lowercase Roman numerals. The page heading is the phrase “LIST OF ______” in all capital letters, centered between the margins, at the top of the page.
Footnotes
Textual notes that provide supplementary information, opinions, explanations, or suggestions that are not part of the text must appear at the bottom of the page, i.e., footnoted. That placement ensures that they will appear as close as possible in the microfilm to the referenced passage. Lengthy footnotes may be continued on the next page. Placement of footnotes at the bottom of the page is necessary since all dissertations are microfilmed, and a master”s thesis will be microfilmed if it is requested through interlibrary loan. Note: footnotes may be single-spaced in a 10-point size but must be in the same font as the text.
Footnote numbering can be continuous throughout the dissertation or thesis or may start again for each chapter or page, but the method must be consistent. Inserted footnotes may not be numbered 25a, for example. The footnotes following the insertion must be renumbered.
Figures, Tables, Photographs, and Foldouts
Follow these guidelines when including figures, tables, photographs and foldouts in the dissertation. Formatting these items may be difficult, and students are urged to consult the dissertation Adviser/Chair.
Tables and Figures. Tables and figures must be placed as close as possible to their first mention in the text. They may be placed on a page with no text above or below, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a table or figure is placed directly into the text, text may appear above or below the table; no text may wrap around the table. If a table or a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative), it should be centered within the margins on the page. Tables and figures may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the dissertation or thesis. Figure and table numbering must be either continuous throughout the dissertation or thesis, or by chapter, e.g., 1.1, 1.2; 2.1, 2.2, etc. There cannot be two figures numbered 5, for example, in a dissertation.
Headings of tables should be placed at the top of the table. While there are no specific rules for the format of table headings and figure captions, a consistent format must be used throughout the dissertation.
Captions of figures should be placed at the bottom of the figure. If the figure takes up the entire page, the figure caption should be placed alone on the preceding page and centered vertically and horizontally within the margins. Each page receives a separate page number. When a figure title is on a preceding page, the second and subsequent pages of the figure should say, for example, Figure 5 (Continued). The first page of data does not have the caption with the word “Continued”. In such an instance, the List of Figures will list the page number containing the title. The word ”figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the ”f” should be capitalized, for example: Figure 5.
If a table or figure is more than one page, the second and subsequent pages should say at the top either Table 5 (Continued) or Figure 5 (Continued), and the caption is omitted.
Horizontal figures and tables must be positioned correctly: they will be bound at the top (i.e., the top of the figure or table will be at the left margin). Figure and table headings/captions are placed with the same orientation as the figure or table when on the same page. When on a separate page, headings/captions are always placed in vertical orientation, regardless of the orientation of the figure or table. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page.
Hint: To paginate a table in landscape orientation (in a separate document), insert a blank page at the appropriate point of your thesis (under the Insert menu, chose Break, and select Page Break). Then print your landscape table without a page number. You can feed the same piece of paper into the printer twice (once to print the landscape table, once to print the page number), or you can tape the page number onto the bottom of the landscape page and photocopy the page.
If a graphic artist does the figures, the College will accept lettering done by the artist within the figure. Figures done with software are acceptable if the figures are clear and legible. Legends and titles done by the same process, as the figures will be accepted if they, too, are clear and legible and at least 10 or 12 characters per inch. Otherwise the legends and captions should be printed with the same font that is in the text. The use of colors should be avoided, because they are not reproduced well on microfilm. Other techniques for indicating differences within graphs, charts, maps, etc., such as cross-hatching, should be used.
All graphs, diagrams, line drawings, manuscript facsimiles, maps, chemical formulas, computer printouts, musical scores, etc., included in the body of the dissertation or thesis must be on archival paper and must be produced by acceptable permanent methods. Pages should not vary from the standard size of 8 1/2 x 11 inches. Plan the illustrative materials so they can be reduced to meet this specification. They should be centered between the margins on a page with no text above or below. Exceptions to this rule are discussed in the section on foldouts.
For reduction of material, always use machines that can reduce one percent at a time. If figures or tables are too large to be reduced satisfactorily, they should either be split into several pages or be redone. Long tables may be single spaced, and text may be slightly reduced. Page numbers and headings must not be reduced. All lettering must be clear, readable, and large enough to be legible on microfilm. The rule of thumb is that all lettering, including subscripts, must still be readable when reduced 25% beyond the final version. The white space around the text or figures must meet all margin requirements.
Photographs. In order for photographs to be considered archival, they must be black-and-white. If color photographs are necessary, they must be accompanied by photographs of the same subject in black-and-white. Contact the dissertation chair for specific information.
If the photographs are smaller than 8 1/2 x 11 inches, they should be produced on a lightweight or single-weight polyfiber paper with a glossy finish. Mount the photographs on the same archival paper as the rest of the dissertation or thesis. Have them dry-mounted professionally, affix them with a spray adhesive mount, or use a dry-mount that adheres to all paper surfaces, coarse and smooth (archival paper is not porous). Never use rubber cement; pictures will fall out of the dissertation or thesis after three or four years.
An alternative to using actual photographs is to prepare the original using a photograph, which is mounted (either permanently or in a temporary fashion) onto a page, which has the correct page number and figure caption. This page can then be photocopied, using a color laser photocopier, directly onto the archival paper required for final submission. The resolution is usually high using this process, which works for black-and-white photographs as well. Several copy centers in geographical your area will color-copy onto archival bond. The dissertation Adviser has further information.
Foldouts. Foldouts are discouraged. However, if large tables, illustrations, etc., cannot be placed in the regular 8 1/2 x 11 inch format, then 11 x 17 inch archival (if available) paper may be used. The same margin requirements apply: 1 1/2 inches on the left and one inch on the top, bottom, and right. This leaves an area of 9 x 14 1/2 inches to be filled with text. The student should not fold these pages; roll them and put them in a mailing tube. If material is larger than 11 x 17 inches, such as a map or drawing, it should be placed in a tube with the student”s name, degree, and year of conferral written on the tube. If possible, those insertions should also be on archival paper.
For a doctoral dissertation: submit two copies of the foldouts in two separate tubes to accompany the copies of the dissertation. Be sure to mention in the text that loose materials are included with the dissertation.
Appendix
Materials which are peripheral but relevant to the main text of the dissertation or thesis should be placed in appendices. These may include survey instruments, additional data, computer printouts, details of a procedure or analysis, a relevant paper written by the student, etc. Appendix material must meet the same requirements of page composition, pagination, legibility, and paper quality as the text itself. On the first page of each appendix the page number is placed at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins.
Bibliography, References, or Works Cited
TUI-College of Health Sciences recommends that the student follow the standard citation format used by a major journal in one”s academic field and that the style be consistent throughout the dissertation or thesis. Students may consult, among others, The Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual, or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA).
Bibliographies may be single-spaced within each entry, but must be double-spaced between each entry. On the first page of the bibliography, the page number is placed at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins. Page numbers are placed at the top of the page for all pages after the first page of the bibliography. Exception: see “Papers Option”.
Acknowledging the Work of Others
Students are responsible for acknowledging any facts, ideas, or materials of others in their work. Students must follow the guidelines for acknowledging the work of others in the “Code of Academic Integrity and Acknowledging the Work of Others”.
Copyrighted Material
If a student uses any copyrighted material in the dissertation or thesis, it is the student”s responsibility to give full credit to the author and publisher of work quoted. The acknowledgment should be placed in a footnote. Additionally, the student must determine whether use of the material can be classified within “fair use” guidelines.
If the student has included material beyond the concept of “fair use”, then the student must obtain written permission from the copyright owner. Two copies of each permission letter should be submitted with the thesis or dissertation. University Microfilms, Inc. has specific requirements for the content of the permission letter. For these guidelines, consult Doctoral Dissertation Agreement Form, published by University Microfilms, Inc.
For a more detailed discussion of “fair use”, see Copyright Law and the Doctoral Dissertation: Guidelines to your Legal Rights and Responsibilities, published by University Microfilms, Inc. or The Chicago Manual of Style published by the University of Chicago Press.
If one has already published, or had accepted for publication, part of one”s own dissertation material in a journal, it is necessary to write to that journal and obtain written authorization to use the material in one”s dissertation or thesis. (See “Published Material” under “Papers Option.”)
Reference Sources for Style and Format
Although formats vary among fields, the TUI-CHS strongly encourages adherence to accepted standards of usage in matters of grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. A student should check with his or her field for specific requirements of format. If the field has none, then use a standard format such as one described in the following references:
? Achtert, Walter S., and Joseph Gibaldi. The MLA Style Manual. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1985.
? Boyd, Jane and Don Etherington. Preparation of Archival Copies of Theses and Dissertations. Chicago: American Library Association, 1986.
? Crews, Kenneth D. Copyright Law and the Doctoral Dissertation: Your Legal Rights and Responsibilities. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, Inc., 1992.
? Day, Robert A. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 4th ed. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1994.
? Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 1994.
? Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
? The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
? Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Production of the Dissertation
The dissertation may be produced with a word processor, computer, or typewriter. If a computer is used, the printing must be on a laser printer or a printer of similar quality (i.e. a printer with a resolution of 300 dots per inch or greater). A dot matrix printer is not acceptable.

Computers and Printers
Almost all dissertations are produced on computers, and a variety of software packages are used. It is important to consider the content and length of the dissertation when choosing a software package. Also consider the printers that will be available for the final printing of the dissertation. Dot matrix printers are not acceptable for the final copy of the dissertation or thesis. If the computer one is using does not print to a laser printer or one of similar quality, switch to another computer to avoid objections to the quality of the typeface in the dissertation.
Computer printouts and all computer-generated figures and graphs must meet the same standards as the rest of the dissertation, i.e., must fit within the specified margins, be copied on the same paper as the rest of the dissertation, and have consecutive numbering. Computer printouts, however, do not need to be in the same typeface. Dot matrix printers will be accepted for computer printouts, if legible, but these printouts must be placed in the appendix. All software acquisition for data analysis, typing etc. Is the responsibility of the PhD candidate.
Information Technology -Support (IT) is also a source of computer support for graduate students.
There is also a dissertation template available, which includes most of the necessary formatting for the dissertation.
Copying Process and Paper Specifications
All submitted dissertations must be clear enough to be read easily and to provide legible microfilm. Dirty pages, or pages containing spots or smudges, whiteouts, roller marks, or gray lines are not acceptable and must be retyped or recopied. The dissertation Adviser/Chair must approve the manuscript before it is copied for final submission.
The dissertation should be printed on 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper, using only one side of the sheet. The final copies submitted to the School must be on archival paper (acid-free, 20-24 lb., white, 25% cotton paper), which is available from bookstores and copy centers all over the world.
One should keep the original typescript. If it is necessary to make changes or reproduce it in the future, sharper results may be obtained from an original than from copies.
Make sure that each copy of the dissertation is properly collated and that no pages are missing, duplicated, placed in incorrect order, or turned sideways. Also make sure that all pages are as clean and as sharp as the original. All typing expenses and copying are the responsibility of the PhD candidate.
Obtaining Approval for Scheduling the Final Oral Defense
Dissertation Committees are unique and it is important for students to clarify exactly what each member of the Committee expects. In general, however, the major input into the original draft of a dissertation will come from the dissertation chairperson. In some cases, the additional members of the Dissertation Committee may want to see each chapter of the dissertation as it is being written; in others, the committee members may want to see a complete draft after it has been given tentative approval by the chairperson. Whatever procedure is used, there will come a time when a majority of the members of the Dissertation Committee agree that the dissertation is ready for the oral defense. When this time has come, the members of the Committee will sign a form indicating their willingness to allow the dissertation to be defended. Signing this form does not indicate that the members of the Dissertation Committee have approved the dissertation; rather, each member is indicating that in his or her opinion the dissertation is in a state where it can be presented to other members of the program faculty.
The Dissertation Committee approves the holding of the oral defense by signing the approval form.
Scheduling of the Oral Defense

Procedures. An oral defense of a dissertation normally takes from 1 1/2 to 2 hours. The defense will be by teleconferencing or in person. In consultation with the dissertation chairperson, the usual procedure is for the student to find a day and time at which it is possible for all members of the Dissertation Committee to meet.
Submission of Dissertation Copies
The College of Health Sciences requires that one copy of the dissertation be submitted to the Office of the Dean 2 weeks prior to the scheduled defense date. This copy is to be used by members of the academic community of the university who wish to read the dissertation and attend the dissertation defense. In addition, each member of the Dissertation Committee should also receive the version of the dissertation, which has been submitted to the Office of the Dean.
Two weeks prior to the scheduled date of the defense, the Dean and each committee member should receive a copy of the dissertation. The Dean?s copy will be available to other faculty members who are interested in the study or who plan to attend the defense.
Philosophy of the Oral Defense

The purpose of the oral defense is fourfold:

? To demonstrate that the dissertation is commensurate with the standards for original research in the field,
? To demonstrate that the ethics and standards governing research in the field have been followed,
? To demonstrate the candidate”s mastery of the research and the appropriate methodology,
? To demonstrate the candidate”s understanding of the relationship of this work to the broader field in which it is lodged.
Procedures for the Oral Defense
Who Can Attend the Oral Defense? Attendance at the defense is limited to members of the Dissertation Committee, the student, and members of the TUI academic community.

Who Must Attend the Oral Defense? All members of the Dissertation Committee must be present for the defense unless exceptions are approved in writing by the Dean or by his/her designee. Absent members of the Dissertation Committee must still participate in the defense through, for example, the submission of written comments and questions. No more than one member of the Dissertation
Committee can be absent from the defense.

Who Can Actively Participate in the Oral Defense. If there are others in addition to the student and the Dissertation Committee at the defense, it is the responsibility of the Chairperson of the Dissertation Committee to insure that time is provided for their comments and that a portion of the defense is restricted only to participation by the members of the Dissertation Committee.

Outcome of the Oral Defense
The outcome of the oral defense is decided by an open vote of the Dissertation Committee. The decision of the Committee (Pass or Fail) is determined by a majority of the committee members.

At the oral defense, only the members of the Dissertation Committee have the authority to decide whether the candidate passes or fails. Both the dissertation itself and the candidate”s performance in the oral defense are grounds for the committee”s decision to pass or fail.
Doctoral candidates may pass the oral but still be required to revise their dissertation. It is the responsibility of the committee chair to review and approve minor revisions to the dissertation. Dissertations requiring either minor revisions or no revisions must be submitted to the Office of the Dean in final form within four weeks of the concluded defense. If the dissertation is not received within four weeks of the oral defense, that defense is nullified and a new oral defense must be scheduled. When major revisions are required, the defense should be suspended until the majority of the members of the Doctoral Committee agree that the dissertation has been sufficiently revised and is now defendable. At this point, the oral defense should be reconvened. All defenses, including reconvened defenses, must be announced in writing at least ten working days in advance.

Final Editing and Submission of the Dissertation
Almost all dissertations require at least minor editing after the oral defense. As mentioned above, the student has four weeks from the date of the oral to complete these editorial changes, make sure that the dissertation is properly formatted (see Guidelines below), obtain the signature of the dissertation advisor on the Certificate of Acceptability, and submit the dissertation to the Director of Student Services.
The Process may be described as follows:
The dissertation, after being successfully defended and after having any revisions required by the committee completed and approved, must be submitted in duplicate to the Director of Student Services. Two final signature pages, both originals, must be included. Dissertations will only be accepted in black spring-back binders. An abstract of not more than 350 words must also be submitted in duplicate to the Office of the Dean along with a properly completed and signed Microfilm Agreement and Survey of Earned Doctorate. These items must be submitted within four weeks of the oral defense. The Dean reserves the right to reject any dissertation, which is not prepared in accordance with an approved style or does not meet the criteria, listed in the Dissertation Handbook. The Dean of the College must approve all completed dissertations.
A Certificate of Acceptability must also accompany every dissertation. The student and his/her committee chair/advisor must sign the certificate. The chair/advisor is attesting that he/she has read the final copy and that the content and form, including grammar, spelling, and general readability are accepted. If major problems are discovered when the dissertation is reviewed, the dissertation may be returned to the committee chair. It then becomes the chair?s responsibility to work with the student in
bringing the dissertation up to acceptable standards.

Before the Final Dissertation Defense
Submitting Draft to Committee
At least six weeks prior to the final defense, the student is expected to submit an outline and an early draft of the dissertation to all members of the Dissertation Committee.
A final draft of the dissertation must be submitted to each Committee member at least seven days before the final examination. That draft may have to be modified as a result of the examination, but at the time of the examination the draft should be complete (title page to last page of references) in all respects and editorially acceptable for final approval.
Final Defense Forms
The defense should be scheduled with the Deans? office and the following forms filed in the TUI-CHS office at least seven calendar days before the final defense date. These forms can be found in the Deans? office.
? Schedule of Defense form. This form must bear the signature of each member of the Committee. The signature of the Dean of the College is also required.
At the time when each committee member and the Dean sign the Schedule of the Defense form, they should each be sent an e-mail, with the appropriate information.
Ph.D. Checklist
Format
? All pages 8 1/2 x 11 inches, one side only, on archival paper
? Typeface of text consistent, either 10 CPI or 12 CPI
? Margins after photocopying-at least 1 1/2 inches on left; at least one inch on all other sides
? Double-spaced (except Bibliography , Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, lengthy tables, quotations, footnotes)
? All equations and formulas typed (superscripts and subscripts all legible)
? No “orphans
? Avoid “widows”
Preliminary Pages

? Small Roman numerals used at the bottom of the page, centered between the
margins, with at least 1/2 inch clearance from bottom of page, starting with
iii-Biographical Sketch
? Arranged in proper order

Copyright
? Notice of copyright on page immediately after title page

Abstract
? Double-spaced
? Same typeface as dissertation
? Not exceeding 350 words for doctorate
? Pages not numbered or counted
? Original signature of chairperson in upper right corner of first page of each copy
? Proper heading format

Text

? Each chapter begins on a new page
? Sections within chapters do not begin on new pages (unless occurs naturally)
? On first page of each chapter, first page of appendix, and first page of bibliography, page number (Arabic) at bottom, centered between the margins, with at least 1/2 inch clearance
? On all other pages including text, charts, maps, illustrations, appendices, bibliographies Arabic numbers placed either:
o at top of page, centered between margins, at least 1/2 inch clearance, or
o at top of page, one inch from right edge of paper, 1/2 inch clearance from top
? All pages numbered consecutively

Footnotes

? Style of footnotes consistent throughout dissertation or thesis
? Footnotes typed at bottom of pages
? Footnote numbering consistent

Figures, Tables, Photographs, and Foldouts

? Figure and table numbering either continuous throughout dissertation or thesis or by chapter
? Table headings placed at top of tables
? Figure captions placed at bottom of figures
? Proper paper specifications
? All lettering clear and legible
? Glossy black and white photographs, not silk finish
? Mounted photographs on same archival paper as rest of dissertation or thesis and according to specifications
? Foldouts are in tubes

Copying and Binding

? Two copies on archival paper
? Each copy is properly collated
? Each copy is sharp and clean
Forms to Submit
? Doctorate Dissertation Approval and License to Use Copyrighted Material form (typed), signed by Special Committee
o Original dissertation approval form and four copies must be submitted with dissertation
? Address for Diploma slip
? Microfilm Agreement, signed by student, with a copy of title page and abstract attached
? Money order or certified check ($45 in fall 1999) if registering copyright

To request forms mail to: will be determined in a later date.
Receipts to Submit
Note: The dollar amounts given are current for fall term, 1999. These amounts are likely to change. A list of updated fees is available from the Deans? Office.
Generally, a dissertation consists of five major parts: the abstract, the introduction, the text, the reference materials and the appendices. The following is a list of all the major and minor parts and their usual order of placement within the body of the dissertation.
The components of a Dissertation
Title Page
Acknowledgements
Personal Biography
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. Text
IV. References
V. Appendices