Each student will complete a 15?20 page paper (not including the title, abstract, etc) in which they will discuss current issues facing adolescents today and how a counselor should deal with these areas. Your paper can be on any topic from the book associated with adolescence. You should be fairly specific with your topic – PAS (Post Abortion Syndrome), multiple behavior problem syndrome – something along those lines. The paper must be in APA style with a minimum of 15 current references (within five years).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A. A persistent pattern of angry and irritable mood along with defiant and vindictive behavior as evidenced by four (or more) of the following symptoms being displayed with one or more persons other than siblings.

Angry/Irritable Mood

1. Loses temper

2. Is touchy or easily annoyed by others.

3. Is angry and resentful

Defiant/Headstrong Behavior

4. Argues with adults

5. Actively defies or refuses to comply with adults? request or rules

6. Deliberately annoys people

7. Blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior


8. Has been spiteful or vindictive at least twice within the past six months

B. (NOTE: UNDER CONSIDERATION) The persistence and frequency of these behaviors should be used to distinguish a behavior that is within normal limits from a behavior that is symptomatic to determine if they should be considered a symptom of the disorder. For children under 5 years of age, the behavior must occur on most days for a period of at least six months unless otherwise noted (see symptom #8). For individuals 5 years or older, the behavior must occur at least once per week for at least six months, unless otherwise noted (see symptom #8). While these frequency criteria provide a minimal level of frequency to define symptoms, other factors should also be considered such as whether the frequency and intensity of the behaviors are non-normative given the person?s developmental level, gender, and culture.

C. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, educational, or vocational activities.

D. The behaviors may be confined to only one setting or in more severe cases present in multiple settings.