Complete only 4 of the following short answer questions using your own critical thinking and at least one scientific resource. Be sure to provide citation for your resources and do not provide more than 30% direct quote from those resources as your answer. Each short answer should be at least 200 words in length. (You can choose any 4 out of these 8 questions to answer, 1 question per page and 1 scientific resource per question).

1. Many, perhaps most, women in Western society feel as if they are dieting or between diets their entire adult lives. Is it possible to be a woman in this society and not struggle with at least some issues of appearance and eating? Why is it accepted that men will have pot bellies and wrinkles as they age but not women? What could we as a society do to help women accept their aging bodies?

2. What different kinds of issues might be confronted by drug abusers from different ethnic groups or genders, and how might such issues influence their efforts at recovery?

3. Prevalence rates for sexual behavior are typically based on surveys of the general population. However, many people feel that sex is a private matter and refuse to participate in such surveys, and those who do respond tend to be more liberal, sexually experienced, and unconventional that the norm. What problems might this cause for sex researchers? How might this affect our results of studies and our perceptions of what is normal? How might these results affect a newly sexually active couple trying to determine what is normal?

4. Although both cognitive behavioral therapists and self help programs such as Hearing Voices Network believe that people who hallucinate and have schizophrenia should accept the voices that they hear from their brains, there are differences between the role and meaning that they each assign to hallucinations. What are these differences and why are they important in the treatment of schizophrenia.

5. It is common for people outside the clinical field to mistakenly diagnose mental disorders in themselves, their relatives and friends and the personality disorders are among the most favored of these diagnoses. Why do you think these diagnoses are particularly subject to such efforts of amateur psychology? Also answer why some observers suggest that personality disorders are just justification for undesirable behavior and that they should not be considered psychological disorders. Argue for and against this position.

6. Although boys with psychological disorders outnumber girls, women with such disorders outnumber men. How might this age related shift occur? How might it be explained?

7. Does aging lead to depression and other psychological problems? What kinds of attitudes, perceptions, preparations and activities might help an individual enter old age with peace of mind and even positive anticipation?

8. How might lingering anxiety affect the behavior and effectiveness of clinicians who have been attacked by patients?