Title: The role of Technology in reducing and exacerbating disaster risk

An essay (1500 words ) on the following questions
In respect to a specific disaster risk in a country/context
1. Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.

2. Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.

3. Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.

4. How to involve communities in technology development.

Please select one of the following disaster/country for the essay for the above questions:

? Haiti (pre/post-earthquake 2010)
? Rwanda (pre and post genocide)
? Pakistan floods 2010
? Bangladesh

Examples ? India/Bangladesh river management, defence levies in New Orleans, Fukushima.

The essay should be 1500 words may increase 10%, and must cite appropriate academic sources using the Harvard reference method.

General criteria:
Comprehensive research
Critical evaluation
Clear synthesis
Effective integration of case study
Use of appropriate academic style (e.g. Harvard referencing)
Relevance: content and sources selected and arguments presented

In order to support the essay diagram, map of the country, and chart may be included in the essay.
Please use the following list of references or as appropriate. NB: This list is not exhaustive as additional references list may be added as appropriate, including journals and websites..
Essential References
Collins A. (2009) Disasters and Development, Routledge. Abingdon.
Eade, D and Williams, S (1998) The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief Volumes 1 & 2. Oxford, Oxfam GB
Hilhorst D ed. (2013), Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises, Routledge
Potter R.B, Binns T., Elliot E.A.& Smith D. (2008) Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.
Shaw, M, Dorling, D & Mitchell, R (2002), Health, Place and Society Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Todaro, M. P., and Smith S. C., (2005) Economic Development, 9 th ed, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.
Willis K (2011) Theories and practices of development Routledge 2nd ed

Recommended References
Allen T and Thomas A (2000) Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Open University
Desai V and Potter R B (2002) The Companion to Development Studies. Arnold
Ferron S, Morgan J and O?Reilly M.(2007) Hygiene Promotion. Rugby: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
Green,D (2008) From poverty to power. Oxford: Oxfam
Hodder R (2000) Development Geography. Routledge
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2008. World Disasters Report – Focus on HIV and AIDS, Geneva
Momsen J H (2011) Gender and Development in the Third World. Routledge (2nd ed)
Parker, R (2006) Hazards of Nature, Risks to Development : An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Assistance for Natural Disasters, World Bank, VA
Twigg, J. (2004) Disaster Risk Reduction: mitigation and preparedness in developmentand emergency programming. Good Practice Review #9. ODI: London.
United Nations Development Programme, 2008. Women as Equal Partners: Gender Dimensions of Disaster Risk Management Programme, UNDP, New Delhi
Verger, P, M Ruijten, D Russell, T Lang, (2007). Recommendations to improve post-disaster HIA (Health Impact Assessment). European Journal of Public Health, 17: 6-7.
Wisner, B,Gaillard J.C, and Kelman I. (2011) Handbook of Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction, Routledge:
World Health Organisation, 2008. World Health Report – A safer future: global public health security in the 21st century . WHO, Geneva.