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The effectiveness of using technology in the reading curriculum for low level students with special needs

Improving Reading Skills of Low-Level Special Needs Students through the use of Technology

Irwin N Kellen

Concept Paper For: ARC: 8966 CRN: 58770

July 30, 2007

–> Introduction[Author:T]

Technology and literacy have a very strong link and scholars have been keenly interested in discovering various aspects of their relationship. Fisher and Molebash (2003) in their study wrote that it was the Digital Divide, amongst many other things, that creates a division in learning. which has reminded –> us [Author:T] about They pointed out that the distance of accessibility that people in different parts of the world have when dealing with the latest advancement in information technologies. It is these reminders that –> make us face the fact that [Author:T] literacy, which is the main aim of a digital economy, is still not as accessible as it could or should be. This is one of the main reasons why organizations like the E-rate have devoted more and more time and effort into constructing a sound and efficient technical and informative setup of various schools in different parts of the world (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

Most researchers and educationalists make the mistake to treat of treating literacy and technical proficiency on different scales. However, the truth of the matter is that one cannot exist or work efficiently without the success of the other. A good example of this is visibly present in the past decade: the Technology Literacy Challenge Fund of 1997 aimed to advance technical learning and skills of every student while the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 aimed to adopt a more technologically-driven structure to boost the overall literacy amongst students. However, both failed to realize that neither can obtain their objectives without understanding that technical proficiency and literacy go hand in hand.

The main focus of this paper, hence, will be to define literacy, in the context of reading, and also discuss its connection with technology as well as present the advancements in the department of literacy/reading in special education. –> We will draw attention [Author:T] to the scope of special education in the fields of literacy/reading. A secondary aim of this paper will be to evaluate ways that will allow provide teachers with a wide array of choices in teaching low level special-needs students to read/understand what they have read in order to and make them part of the literate society.

–> Literature Review[Author:T]

Fisher and Molebash (2003) have defined literacy/reading, as a whole, as purely a means to extract meaning and understanding from a form of information or knowledge database. What technological improvements –> has[Author:T] done is given the teachers and students a wide spectrum of choices to extract this information. At first all educational exchanges were mainly aural but with time the advent of books, libraries, the media, journalism, television, the Internet, video games; etc making teachers’ the task of the teachers has gotten easier. –> and the accessibility of the students has increased[Author:T] . However, when dealing with the students who have special needs, mere accessibility is not the answer and all efforts on technology integration have to include the easier understanding and interpretation of the text available (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

May (2003) found that even though technological improvements, even though, have made the job of the teacher easier; it has not actually decreased the workload. A teacher still has more than –> 2 [Author:T] dozen children in his/her class and there are various teaching/learning capabilities and methods that these teachers still have to understand. This difference in teaching/learning is even more enhanced amongst the special-needs students. A teacher cannot overlook a behavioral pattern or force a learning technique upon his/her students. This is one of the main ways that technology has helped the teachers. They can now use the everyday mechanisms to explain different educational theories with the help of other technological tools or interpretations. However, for technology to actually help in the long run, the teachers need to make sure that the students are giving their input and are involved in the utilization of the technology so as to ensure a higher success rate of education through technology (May, 2003).

–> Teale et al. [Author:T] (2002) concluded in their study that the use of technical advancements and proficiencies in the educational structure helped enhance the reading and writing skills of the special-needs students ( –> Teale et al. [Author:T] 2002). The main reason for this is that technology integration attracts the children motivates students and instigates engages them to learn more and more. However –> the[Author:T] teachers have to be careful that the technology being used does not hinder or slow down the process of learning for the special-needs students as their learning curves are very different form those of the normal students. Asselin (2001) in his study highlighted that “The value of educational time spent on using technology to support students’ literacy development rests on its ability to promote higher-level thinking, collaboration, constructivism, speed and information evaluation–i.e., those competencies required for the 21st century” ( –> Asselin 2001[Author:T] ).

The 21st century looms with the need for great technological sense and knowledge for all its future businessmen and managers. This is one of the main reasons why the students of the 21st century need to get become accustomed to using these advancements and their implementations. and acquire knowledge of these advancements and their implementations. This is also what has led to the incorporation of technology in a classroom setting. All these technologies aim to increase the students’ intensity of wisdom, cooperation and text assessment. A good and simple illustration of this could be is a book review, . This could which can be an individual task or even a group task and the child (or children) could be asked to use that uses software programs such as applications like Kidspiration and Timeliner. These applications could software programs help the students highlight visualize their thoughts and opinions as well as communicate them efficiently. Now literacy reading skills education is are very important not only for the reading skills of both normal students but also and special-needs students because they are not just exposed exposure to literacy is not only through books anymore. In fact, their the range of information is more vast and varied in accordance with the technical improvements; this is why the teaching of literacy/reading is far trickier then before. Teale et al. (2002) explained this: –> “Technology profoundly affects the learning and teaching of literacy as well as the nature of literacy itself. It always has. The development of book technologies in the early 1500s set in motion the need for book literacies and many of the abilities we currently teach in our classrooms. Today, new literacies emerge as new technologies for information and communication demand new skills for their effective use. These include the literacies of word processors (e.g., using a spell checker or knowing how to format a paper), e-mail (e.g., managing a digital address book or effectively using an electronic mailing list) and the Web (e.g., using search engines to locate information on the Internet or knowing effective strategies to critically evaluate Web site information). As a community of literacy educators, we are responding to the emergence of these new literacies in many ways” [Author:T] (Teale et al. 2002).

–> “[Author:T] Technology profoundly affects the learning and teaching of literacy as well as the nature of literacy itself. It always has. The development of book technologies in the early 1500s set in motion the need for book literacies and many of the abilities we currently teach in our classrooms. Today, new literacies emerge as new technologies for information and communication demand new skills for their effective use. These include the literacies of word processors (e.g., using a spell checker or knowing how to format a paper), e-mail (e.g., managing a digital address book or effectively using an electronic mailing list) and the Web (e.g., using search engines to locate information on the Internet or knowing effective strategies to critically evaluate Web site information). As a community of literacy educators, we are responding to the emergence of these new literacies in many ways. –> ” (Teale et al. 2002).[Author:T]

To improve the reading skills of special-needs students, the teachers are aiming to teachers use technology to improve student skills in the following spheres to make them: Making them (a) hear word tones, of the words, Making them (b) decipher and interpret words their use and interpretation, Making them (c) understand their overall expressions, Making them (d) understand the word span, of words, and (e) Making them become knowledgeable and confident with their reading style.

–> Making them hear tones of the words,

Making them decipher their use and interpretation,

Making them understand their overall expressions,

Making them understand the span of words,

Making them knowledgeable and confident with their reading style. [Author:T]

Numerous agencies are also involved to help the teachers and the special-needs students on the department of with reading/literacy. One of the many organizations involved is the Software & and Information Industry Association. Grogan (2002) analyze –> s[Author:T] one of the latest studies conducted by The Software & Information Industry Association and confirms that the use of technology helps develop the reading and speaking skills of the special-needs students through by boosting their spelling sense, plus span of words, expression and overall understanding of the text. He also proposed that to cater to the different learning curves of the special-needs students, teachers could employ a multimedia literacy program that incorporates text, acoustics, images and manipulatives (Grogan 2002).

May (2003) –> notes [Author:T] that one of the most successful ways with which that reading amongst the special-needs students has been enhanced by using technology has been in the is through group book reviews. The class is first given a list of books to choose form and then the students are divided in different groups based on their choice of book. There are prearranged meetings, and the pages that need to be read in each group are decided before students meet in groups. meetings are also decided from before. After this is done all special needs students are to During group meetings students engage in certain leaning task that involve the interpretation of the story, the characters and their choices, the plots, the twists, the climax, the main incidents and their denotations. etc. The whole idea is to make the children focus on what the story is about and how it has evolved through events and different interpretations (May, 2003).

May (2003) found that one of the most commonly used applications in this group book review task is the AlphaSmart mainly because of its simplicity and popularity among the special-needs students. The task would mainly involve the interpretation and rewriting of the story so that the teacher is aware of how well the student understands the plot and how much work he/she does. This also helps the teachers analyze the influence that the group opinions might have on the individuals within the group.

May (2003) notes that amongst other applications that are fast becoming part of the curriculum for improving the reading and understanding of the special-needs students are Kidspiration and Timeliner. The Kidspiration software program application helps the students recall the main events and characters of the story and their influence on the overall plot while the Timeliner application software program helps the students to analyze the timeline in which the major incidents in the storyline took place and their aftermath on the following timelines (May, 2003).

May (2003) writes that one other another technique that is now being used within a classroom of with special-needs students is the teacher reading the story out aloud . the whole story. After the story is completed the teacher asks the and then having the students to roam around their environment and take pictures that they feel relate to the story. that had been read out loud. They then come back and Then students use the AlphaSmart software application to paste their pictures and explain in a paragraph why, how, and where in the plot they feel that the pictures relates to the story. This tests three things: one, (a) the student concentration of the students, two their (b) student level of understanding of the general plot, and three, their (c) student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students’ horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students (May, 2003).

May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students and explains their use and different interpretations and then asks them to head out and take photographs in accordance to what they have understood. Any good reader will relay that the best part about reading is the expressions and vocabulary. Vocabulary is mainly an understanding of the use and interpretation of the words being used, and this process has helped the special-needs students in their reading skills when wherever it has been included in the curriculum (May, 2003).

There have been criticisms made on the use of technology and how it changes or lessens the expectations from for the students on a large scale. May (2003) argues that the truth of the matter is that with the increase in distractions that are present nowadays, the students need to be constantly engaged within a classroom setting and the use of technology does that extremely efficiently.

The misconception that exists amongst many still is that technology is the answer to all teaching hazards when dealing with the special-needs students; however, May (2003) notes that it is the proper incorporation of the technology available that makes the teacher’s job easier. The use of technology is a fairly new concept and has been regularly used in the past decade or so, however, the results in the reading and comprehension skills of the special-needs students are undeniably better.

May (2003) notes that teachers have to analyze the technology that will be most useful for the student in accordance to, both, its implementation and the students’ capabilities. If the incorrect technological tool is used it will hamper learning and decrease the level of confidence of the student. Also the teachers cannot expect the students to understand the use of the technological tool without initial instruction and explanation of its use.

–> Advancing Technologies [Author:T]

The three most successful applications that have enhanced the literacy education over the years for the special-needs students are: –> (1) [Author:T] (a) voice detection software,

(2) (b) tele-cooperation operations of the Internet, and (3) (c) Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and new portable processors or devices.

Fisher and Molebash (2003) in their study traced the track of technologicaladvancements and point out that at the advent of the 21st century, all of the above applications were still being tested hypothetically on the drawing board. The speed at which these have been practically implemented and yielded successful result is simply astonishing. They said that Fisher and Molebash found that all technologicaladvancements have followed the pattern that Gordon Moore had pointed out more then 4 decades ago. He had Moore said that in theory all microchips had the capacity to improve and enhance within a period of 18 months to –> two[Author:T] years. This statement, called the Moore’s law, has held true since that day and stands true for the digitally driven society today. The alteration or adjustment in the to Moore’s Law is that Moore had restricted the phenomenon of speedy advancements to the speed of microchips while in today’s society this theory holds true to include everything from the speed, to power, to memory, and to the price (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

This rapid increase in the advancements of technology is one of the main reasons for the incorporation of tools like computers and cameras and others in the school setting because without them the children students will not only be bored but also the educational setup would be backward and not up to the par of what is required in the developing societies. Computers, Nintendo, cell phones, e-mail and the World Wide Web have become such an integral part of the daily life that it is hard to imagine a time when they did not exist. The use of technology within a classroom setting of special-needs students makes these students more confident and comfortable in thinking that they can operate all these things and tools that the normal students operate. can, not to mention the improvement These technology tools also improve in their special needs students’ reading and comprehension skills. that are also a direct result of the use of technology. This ubiquity of technology, like PDA, TVs, cell phones, video games, Walkmans, computers, and modern publishing resources, is why all types of students feel more accustomed and engaged in a classroom where technology is incorporated in the academic curriculum.

Prensky (2000), in answer to the criticism of the application of technology in educational structures, explains that the thought processes and attitudes have shifted dramatically between the past three generations and in correspondence to these changes in attitudes the teaching methods need to be altered as well. Fisher and Molebash (2003) agree that it seems extremely logical to analyze the patterns and learning curves of the current generation before completely discarding the use of technology in educational standards mainly because its seems too easy for the students (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

One of the most useful applications to enhance the reading skills of the special-needs students, thus far, has been the tele-collaborative venture that uses the Internet as its main source of communication. The significant fact of the Tele-collaborative ventures is that it mainly incorporates some of the most commonly used mechanisms of telecommunications like the tools e-mail, debate mediums, synchronous chats, and videoconferencing. All of these tools and mechanisms are then use to communicate within and amongst classroom, schools, and universities as well as across borders to address the commonalities and difficulties faced by the special-needs students. Once these commonalities are identified then numerous organizations join hands to work on problem-solving techniques and structures. Judi Harris (1998), in her study on technology integration in the reading curriculum for low level students with special needs has divided the tele-collaborative based applications and implementations into three groups: (a) interpersonal exchange, (b) information collection and analysis, and (c) problem solving. –>

Interpersonal Exchange,

Information Collection and Analysis, and

Problem Solving. [Author:T]

She further divides these three categories into 18 different activities. The interpersonal exchange includes:

–> Tele-mentoring

Key-pals or pen-pals through the use of Internet

Electronic facades

Question-and-answer exchanges

International classrooms

Imitations or masquerades [Author:T]

The Information Collection and Analysis section includes:

–> Electronic printing

Date or knowledge-based communication

Mutual data investigations

Tele-outings or tele-fieldtrips

Knowledge catalog construction [Author:T]

The Problem Solving section includes:

–> Corresponding problem solving

Knowledge explorations

Contemporary response exchanges

Public interaction ventures

Tele-based problem solving


Chronological problem solving [Author:T]

Hawkes & and Good (2000), in their study highlight that one of the main reason for the improvements in the learning capabilities of K-12 special-needs students has been through is the result of the execution of the tele-collaborative ventures. They also go on to say said that the teachers’ work is made a lot easier and less hectic because they have more options, outlooks, practices and encounters that they can learn from and employ when dealing with the different learning curves of the special-needs students. (Hawkes & Good, 2000). The tele-collaborative ventures have also shown flexibility and adaptability in genres beyond the reading and comprehension skills of special-needs students. One good example of the flexibility of tele-collaborative ventures is given in the study conducted by Dawson, Mason and Molebash (2000). In this study they analyzed the behavioral patterns and results achieved by teachers who were topographically apart but were tele-collaborating on issues that sparked mutual interest like example-based educational methods, internet forums, cross-border university alliance, and similarly patterned or dissimilarly patterned method of teaching. The researchers concluded that the level of tele-collaborative communication and ventures helped in the growth of teaching techniques and information, enhanced the similarities and difficulties that are faced by teachers of special-needs students irrespective of their geographical location, increased the span of learning techniques, encouraged feedbacks as well as helped understand the practical executions of numerous teaching theories.

Enough practical applications and evaluations have shown that the proper and informed execution of the tele-collaborative ventures can immensely benefit the K-12 special-needs students and encourage them to look for multiple interpretations, improve their reading skills and increase their span of knowledge as well as vocabulary (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

–> The Personal Digital Assistants [Author:T]

The rise in the use and success of the Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) is one of the main reasons why it is now being used on such a large scale in the educational institutions as well. Even though the PDA was initially used as a storage device for the names, dates, reminders and/or addresses, it has now become versatile enough to provide the teachers with a sort of an electronic calculator and mobile computer that they can use to access the Internet, perform online tests and assessments, record results, and scores, and allow teachers to have the option of data keeping tools and keep grade books. The popularity of the PDA has forced the Education Committees in Florida to create an efficient software based on the PDA format that will help the special education teachers to document student activities and follow the aims and objectives of students’ Individualized Education Plan (IEP) aims and objectives (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

Fisher and Molebash (2003) pointed out that the PDA can also allow the teachers to manage or oversee a group of students and gather/record the facts in their ongoing discussions. This recording though was once believed to be painstaking, but with the use of PDA teachers can now collect this information is now done without much effort by using PDAs and teachers can then use the information gathered to analyze students’ the comprehension abilities of the students and hence modify their teaching methods accordingly (Fisher and Molebash, 2003). They also asserted that the PDA beyond helping the with the compilation and evaluation of information could also can be used for marking as well i.e. the PDA can measuring and ranking the overall performance of the students in the class by analyzing whatever information has been entered by the teacher (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

One of the most important features of the PDA is the accessibility to the –> i[Author:T] nternet and the online books. It is true that the generation gap makes some teachers want to carry on with the real books and the while students prefer the –> PDF[Author:T] format. The advantage of having a book stored in the PDA is that it can show the meaning, pronunciation and use of a word that the student did not recognize (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

The downside with the use of PDA though, as Fisher and Molebash (2003) highlight, is that the overall monitoring by the teachers would have to increase. This simply means that the easy access to the email or internet for the students might be distracting and destructive if used inappropriately and the notes passing between students will become easier and difficult to control. Hence the monitoring and repercussions would have to be made stricter (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

–> Voice Recognition Technology[Author:T]

Fisher and Molebash (2003) pointed out that the emphasis on learning how to type has grown in importance over the years and now students, along with learning how to read and write, are expected to learn how to type as well. Most of the time, teachers use the computer lab time to allow the students to type and increase their typing speed with time. However, when dealing with special-needs students, this is not always easy. The current format of the keyboard is based on the Sholes’ “QWERTY” which was designed by Christopher Latham Sholes in the 1870s. Over the years, people have been reluctant to change the format as it was seen as too much of a hassle to teach the typists to type in an updated and more efficient keyboard (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

–> Wetzel (1991) [Author:T] in his study had made predictions on some of the problems that the special education teachers might face with the passage of time in the advent of a technologically driven society. –> Dorsey (1994) [Author:T] explained how the implementation of the voice recognition technology was extremely helpful for the special-needs students to express their thought and philosophies particularly the one who suffered from dyslexic. Mitchell and Scigliano (2000) also experimented the use of Voice Recognition Technology (VRT) for the special-needs students although the students they focused on were those who had problems with their sight. –> Brown (1992) in his study also evaluated the usefulness of the VRT and the sample of special-needs students he utilized were the one who were mentally retarded and/or suffered from cruel physical perils. [Author:T] Myers (2000) in his study analyzed the use of VRT in the enhancing of language abilities for immigrant or non-native citizens (Myers, 2000). Fogg and Wightman (2000), in their study also pointed out that the use of VRT helped shorten the time span for conducting interviews or discussions. All these studies prove one thing: that VRT is an essential part of the society we live in and it is particularly important for the special-needs students (Fisher and & Molebash, 2003).

The most likely progress that is expected of the VRT module is that it will soon recognize our speech and convert it to text simultaneously. Fisher and Molebash (2003) recognized that the use of VRT will change the way the future generations will read and write, but they also highlighted that the challenge for most educators will be to incorporate the language capabilities such as like reading and writing in a way that is easy to adjust to and comprehend (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

–> Conclusion[Author:T]

It is extremely hard to imagine what the future holds for us in terms of the technologicaladvancements. , but keeping the Moore’s Law and similar theories in mind we can use the assumptions to demonstrated the need to develop the instructional methods and techniques that incorporate technology. Fisher and Molebash (2003) explained that by keeping the Moore’s law in mind, it is not absurd to assume that by the end of the first two decades of the 21st century the Intel projects will be able to develop and use microchips that will encompass nearly 1 billion transistors, which if continued, will make the human brain and intellect obsolete in comparison to the power and ability of the computer chips (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

Even though the assumptions we make about the future can be wrong and inaccurate, the fact of the matter remains that they can still be of great use to the present. If the current special-needs educators are given targets and aims to achieve in accordance to with the technology being used, they will not only develop a more sound and efficient instructional structure but they will also be able to analyze and evaluate what needs to be done to keep up to pace with the computational advancements of the future. Fisher and Molebash (2003) suggested that to make literacy the only ultimate goal the special-needs instructors will need to construct a method have to incorporate technology that will make it simpler for the special-needs students to access, comprehend and transfer information and opinions so that they can participate in this world where information is everywhere (Fisher and Molebash, 2003).

–> References[Author:T]

Your references are not in the proper format. Below is an example of how they should appear in the reference list. Change to this format:

Angelides, P. (2004). Restructuring staff meetings. Journal of Staff Development, 24, 58. Retrieved January 22, 2006, from Wilson Web Database.

Black, S. (2003). Try, try again. Surgery’s bumpy learning curve applies to teaching. Journal of Staff Development, 24, 8-32. Retrieved December 12, 2005 from Wilson Web Database.

Asselin, M. (2001). Literacy and Technology. Teacher Librarian 28 (3): 49.

–> Brown, C. (1992). The sound-to-speech translations utilizing graphics mediation interface for students with severe handicaps. [ERIC Document Number ED403727][Author:T]

Dawson, K. M., Mason, C. L., & Molebash, P. (2000). Results of a telecollaborative activity involving geographically disparate teachers. Educational Technology & Society, 3(3), 470-483.

–> Dorsey, R. C. (1994). Do what I say! Voice recognition makes major advances. Technos, 3(2), 15-17. E-Rate.[Author:T]

Fisher, D, Molebash, P. (2003). Teaching and Learning Literacy with Technology. Reading Improvement. 40: 2.

Fogg, T., & Wightman, C.W. (2000). Improving transcription of qualitative research interviews with speech recognition technology. [ERIC Document Number ED441854]

Grogan, D. (2002). Phonemic Awareness: Technology Lends a Hand. Principal 81 (4): 62-64.

Harris, J. (1998). Activity structures for curriculum-based telecollaboration. Learning and Leading With Technology, 26(1), 6-15.

Hawkes, M., & Good, K. (2000). Evaluating professional development outcomes of a telecollaborative technology curriculum. Rural Educator, 21(33), 5-11.

May, S.W. (2003). Integrating Technology into a Reading Program. T H E Journal. 30: 8.

Mitchell, D. P., & Scigliano, J. A. (2000). Moving beyond the white cane: Building an online learning environment for the visually impaired professional. Internet and Higher Education, 3, 117-124.

Myers, M. J. (2000). Voice recognition software and a hand-held translation machine for second-language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(1), 29-41.

Prensky, M. (2000). Digital game-based learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Teale, W., L. Labbo, C. Kinzer and D. Leu Jr. (2002). Exploring Literacy on the Internet. The Reading Teacher 55 (7): 654.

–> Wetzel, K. (1991). Speaking to read and write: A report on the status of speech recognition. Computing Teacher, 19(1). 6-10.[Author:T]

Special Education 1

No bold

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Clarify this—rewrite as a sentence.

Change to two (APA rule)

do not use et. al. here because it is the first time you are citing this research. See page 208 in the 5th ed. APA Manual

Since this is the same paragraph and no other research appears between this information, it is understood that this relates to Teale. Therefore, only the yr. is needed.

Delete the before teachers, students, children, etc.

Replace Asselin 2001 with the page number for this quote.

Not cited properly—see page 118 APA Manual. Quotes40 or more words are indented from left margin and single spaced with the page number at the end. I have shown the correct format.

Delete quotation mark

Delete quotation mark and Teale et al. 2002. Replace with page number in parentheses.

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Change to analyzed—APA rule. Always use past tense

Always use past tense

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These were changed to the a, b, c format to comply with APA

Change to 2

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Change to the format used above – use the a, b, c format instead of bullets.

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Check to see if Interent should be capitalized

This is the first time you have used this term. Did you mean, PDA—if so change to PDA. If you meant PDF—spell out the term and then put PDF behind it in parentheses.

Do not bold any headings

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Delete – older than 10 years

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Concept Paper Rubric

Student’s Name: _________________ Committee Chair: __________________

Submission #: ________ Committee Member: __________________

Date: __________




a) Approximate length is 12 pages, excluding title page and reference pages

b) Consistent with APA and Style Guide



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a) Is descriptive of AD study

b) Useful for keyword searches

c) Is within 10-12 words





a) Explains the setting of the study

b) Contains organizational profile

c) Includes other salient information




Statement of the Problem

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c) Impact of problem is clearly stated

d) Stated as declarative sentence

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