Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management
In this assignment, you will be writing a 1,000-1,250-word essay describing the differing approaches of nursing leaders and managers to issues in practice. To complete this assignment, do the following:
1) Select an issue from among those listed below: Selected as below per the instructor:
a) Nursing shortage and nurse turn-over
2) Compare and contrast how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue. Support your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills, and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings.
3) Identify the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing and explain why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style.
4) Use at least two references other than your text and those provided in the course.
5) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
6) This assignment uses a grading rubric that can be viewed at the assignment’s drop box. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
The grading rubric is provided as below:
Criteria Achievement Level
(0-71%) Less than Satisfactory
Compare and contrast how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue. Support your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills, and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings. 4.26 points
The comparison and contrast of how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue is not provided. 4.5 points
The comparison and contrast of how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue is provided; however, relevant information is missing, such as not providing support for your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings, or not providing at least two references beyond your text. 4.98 points
The comparison and contrast of how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated by the assignment instructions. 5.64 points
The comparison and contrast of how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue meets all criteria for the assignment, and is provided in detail. 6 points
The comparison and contrast of how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue meets all criteria for the assignment, is provided in detail. Higher level thinking is demonstrated by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.
Identify the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing and explain why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style. 4.26 points
The identification of the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing is not provided. 4.5 points
The identification of the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing is provided; however, relevant information is missing, such as an explanation to why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style. 4.98 points
The identification of the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment. 5.64 points
The identification of the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing, along with an explanation to why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style, is provided in detail. 6 points
The identification of the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing meets all criteria for the assignment, and is provided in detail. Higher level thinking is demonstrated by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.
Thesis Development and Purpose
Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.
Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear. 0.62 points
Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose. 0.71 points
Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the pap. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. 0.75 points
Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Paragraph Development and Transitions
Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. No apparent connections between paragraphs are established. Transitions are inappropriate to purpose and scope. Organization is disjointed. . 0.56 points
Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident. 0.62 points
Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other. 0.71 points
A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Topic sentences and concluding remarks are appropriate to purpose. 0.75 points
There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.
Mechanics of Writing
(includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)
Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used. 0.56 points
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register); sentence structure, and/or word choice are present. 0.62 points
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. 0.71 points
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. 0.75 points
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
(1- inch margins;
Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier)
Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. 0.23 points
Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.
Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. 0.28 points
Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style. 0.3 points
All format elements are correct.
(In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment)
No reference page is included. No citations are used. 0.34 points
Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used. 0.37 points
Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present. 0.42 points
Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and GCU style is usually correct. 0.45 points
In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
The readings for #2 as stated in the instructions above, is provided as below:
Read chapters 8, 9, 11, and 17 in the text book.
Read “Communication Strategies for Getting the Results You Want” by Haeuser and Preston, from the Healthcare Executive (2005), located in the GCU eLibrary at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=15458261&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Read “Improve Your Environment Through Communication and Change” by Lefton, from Nursing Management (2007), located in the GCU eLibrary at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009384739&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Read “Persuasive Business Proposals: Writing to Win More Customers, Clients, and Contracts” by Obuchowski, from the Harvard Management Communication Letter (2005), located in the GCU eLibrary at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=17515580&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Wertheim, E. (n.d.). Guide for Written Communication. Northeastern University, College of Business Administration. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from http://web.archive.org/web/20080211140854/http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/skills/writovv.htm
Read “Verbal Communication Model: An Idea”, located on the Vtaide Web site at http://www.vtaide.com/lifeskills/verbalC.htm
Read the Module 2 Lecture.:
Every organization needs both managers and leaders. Although these roles may be in conflict with each other in certain circumstances, the health care environment demands the contribution of both managers and leaders. The focus for this week will be on the roles and responsibilities of managers and leaders in health care organizations, their differences, their similarities, and how they may be integrated.
Roles and Responsibilities of the Manager
The role and responsibilities of the manager are to ensure that organizational resources are used effectively and efficiently. A manager’s responsibility is to make sure staff has the tools required to accomplish the work. A manager is often perceived as being task-oriented.
According to Donnelly (2003), the skills of a manager can be divided into these categories: leadership skills, people skills, budgeting and finance, quality of care skills, and information technology skills. Leadership skills, although often differentiated from management skills, are absolutely essential for nursing managers. People skills include interviewing new employees, conducting staff meetings, and communicating effectively with the members of the team. Financial skills may be most often associated with managers and are important in every organization. For the nurse manager, finances are particularly important, as we need to be able to support the work of patient care with the resources necessary to provide that care. Quality of care skills include understanding how to gather, analyze, and interpret quality data and how to use that data to drive performance improvement. Information technology skills are increasingly important as healthcare becomes more automated and nurses become more dependent on computers as tools at the bedside.
According to Kotter, the result of an effective manager is “predictability and order which consistently produces key results for various stakeholders” (1990, p. 2). Managers make life easier for employees through concrete actions. Managers set the expectations and the rules to be followed, motivate the individual members of the team, and assist each staff member to develop their full potential.
Roles and Responsibilities of the Leader
“?let whoever is in charge keep this simple question in her head (not, how can I always do this right thing myself, but) how can I provide for this right thing to always be done?” (Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing)
Leaders are often seen as individuals who encourage the growth and progress of the organization. The word itself implies movement, and an effective leader will not let a person remain where they are in terms of rank or skill level. An effective leader promotes forward movement.
Leadership remains a vague concept, but ideas about what makes a great leader abound. According to The Teal Trust (n.d.), Warren Bennis defines leadership as a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential. Leaders inspire, enable, encourage, and act as role models. A true leader will not let personal goals or conflicts affect the goals of the organization.
Leaders have four main responsibilities. The first is to establish direction, vision, and the strategy to reach that vision for the future. The second is to align people around the vision through communication. This step is critical for leadership because it is where buy-in of the vision occurs. The leader must establish support for the vision in order to make it a reality in the present. The third responsibility of leadership is to motivate and inspire. These two topics are most popular when discussing leadership. And finally, leaders must overcome political, bureaucratic, and resource barriers to make change happen.
Kowalski (2003) describes the Five C’s of Leadership as character, commitment, connectedness, compassion, and confidence. Individuals should evaluate their personal leadership skills by evaluating their behavior in private situations. Is keeping one’s word and valuing other people a common behavior?
Integrating the Roles of Manager and Leader
Not all leaders are managers, and not all managers are leaders. All managers have formal authority through title and position in the organization, but some leaders have no formal authority or title; these are informal leaders. Although the term manager and leader are often used interchangeably, distinct differences between the roles do exist, as well as overlap in the function of the two roles. For example, a leader may be able to articulate a compelling vision of a highly functioning unit in which patient care is exemplary and the staff is performing to their highest level. However, if the leader who articulates this vision is unable to ensure that day-to-day operations are carried out effectively, staff will not be inspired to work toward the goal(s) that have been set. Managers who find that they are weak on leadership must strive to develop their leadership skills. (Donnelly, 2003)
Nursing managers and leaders must understand their role in the importance of communication both within and outside of the organization. Each word, action, or statement may be taken out of context. Therefore, words must be weighed carefully. As discussed in Lecture 7, communication is imperative to conflict resolution. The focus for this week will be on the styles of communication and role of the leader in communicating a shared vision.
According to Select, Assess and Train (2007), studies show that during interpersonal communication, 7% of the message is verbally communicated and 93% is nonverbally transmitted. Of the 93% that is nonverbal, 38% is through vocal tone and 55% is through facial expressions.
Body language might be the oldest language, and it can be the determining factor of whether leaders are successful. Good posture indicates that a leader is confident, and making eye contact tells the receiver that the speaker is interested in them, although it can be tricky due to varying cultural norms. Hand movements can reveal what the mind is thinking. Hands with little movement signify calmness. Hands that are active may indicate nervousness or tense situations. A person who is defensive and is rejecting a message will most likely fold their arms, cross their legs, or turn their body away from the speaker.
Listening is a key element in nonverbal communication. Gabor (1994) gives these tips for T-A-C-T-F-U-L conversations:
T = Think before you speak
A = Apologize quickly when you blunder
C = Converse, don’t compete
T = Time your comments
F = Focus on behavior?not on personality
U = Uncover hidden feelings
L = Listen for feedback
In other words, what is said is not nearly as important as how it is said.
Verbal communication is the most common type of communication and perhaps the most dangerous. Leaders and managers must possess skills and knowledge to discern whether the information presented are the facts or whether the information is out of context. Adeptness in acquiring information and questioning will save the leader from communicating decisions with grave consequences.
Mistrust results when information is withheld, resources are allocated inconsistently, and employees have no support from management. It doesn’t matter if these things have actually happened or not. As long as the perception exists that these situations are real, the climate of mistrust will escalate and employee alienation will grow (Fitzpatrick, 2003, p. 129).
Making presentations to groups or key individuals is a regular part of the leader’s role. Delivering a comprehensible message that is required to gain support requires practice, review, and a willingness to overcome the greatest fear in communication?public speaking. In public speaking or when giving any presentation, it is imperative to know the subject. A speaker should be prepared for a situation in which the audience questions the content and its validity.
Technology can be a great aide to communication, except when it does not work. Having a backup plan is essential. In the early part of the presentation, the speaker should gain trust with the audience and intrigue them so that they want more information. The core of the presentation should be kept concise, and feedback should be asked for in the end so that the speaker will know how to improve for the next time. In a small group, feedback and questions can be asked for periodically.
Speaking one-on-one with an individual is quite different from a presentation, but it still has the potential to be intimidating, depending on the subject matter and situation. Techniques to overcome this uneasy feeling include the use of open-ended questions that encourage expression and open dialogue. A speaker may ask, “Would you mind telling me more about that?” He or she can also use eye contact and lean forward. Being natural and relaxed also helps. Paraphrasing the message in fewer words can confirm whether the message was received accurately. Throughout the conversation, the speaker should be conscious of his or her tone. Tone sets the stage for open or closed conversation. To conclude the conversation, the main points can be summarized to check that the receiver is in agreement with what has been said.
Many people are intimidated by writing because when something is in written form, it cannot be taken back and is open to scrutiny indefinitely. Thankfully, today’s technology takes grammar, spelling, and punctuation to a new level of error prevention. Some basic tips when writing include the following:
1) Avoid the use of slang words or conjunctions.
2) Do not fall prey to repetitive words or phrases?when in doubt, consult a thesaurus.
3) Spell out all acronyms when first referring to an entity? once identified, you may then use the abbreviation.
4) Steer clear of the use of symbols.
5) Keep sentences short, but not choppy.
6) Check the spelling of names of people or companies.
Letter writing should start with an overall summary in the first paragraph. This tells the reader why this information is important to read. The body of the letter should explain the reason for the letter and the background information. The closing is the final impression a writer leaves and should emphasize the importance of an action item such as a follow-up. The writer should proofread the letter thoroughly for punctuation, content, conciseness, and flow. It is important to ensure that the message is clear. Finally, contact information should always be included.
In these modern times, most written communication in business is conducted via e-mail. Although one may feel tempted to treat e-mail more casually than a business letter, remember that this is still business communication. Perceptions of people are determined, in large part, by the tone set in e-mail and other forms of communication. When in doubt, err on the side of formality, rather than informality in e-mail. No one should write anything in an e-mail that they would not want others besides the sender to see. There is no way of knowing to whom the e-mail may be forwarded. Never use ALL CAPS in e-mail as this can be perceived as shouting at the reader. Finally, keep e-mails short. If the reader has to scroll down to read the end of the message, there is a good chance it will not be read.
Career Planning and Resume Development
Frank Lloyd Wright once said, “I know the price of success; dedication, hard work, and an unremitting devotion to the things you want to see happen.” This requires, of course, that one knows what one wants in life and in a career. The first step then, in career planning, is self-reflection in order to discover what one’s true desires are. Without spending time examining the wishes of the heart and mind, it is impossible to create a plan for success in one’s career. Once a career plan has been defined, career goals can be set that will enable the end point to be reached.
After this work has been done, one must create a resume that will enable the individual to gain employment in the organizations that will best facilitate one’s career goals. In nursing, many positions at the front line do not require a resume but only an application. However, it is important to note that while the application may give the employer the information that they desire, the resume gives the applicant an opportunity to call attention to those values, skills, and interests which the nurse believes are of importance to the role in question. The resume should point out to the prospective employer the applicants strengths and passions, both professionally and personally.
Rather than beginning a resume with an objective, an innovative approach is to include a profile, written in an active voice. Whereas an objective tells the employer what the applicant is seeking, a profile highlights for the employer what the applicant brings to the role.
Guidelines for successful resume preparation from Marquis and Huston (2006) include:
1) Type the resume in a format/font that is easy to read.
2) Emphasize your strong points and minimize your weaknesses.
3) The resume should be free of grammatical or syntactical errors.
4) The resume should be written in a direct manner using active voice whenever possible.
Communicating a Shared Vision
“Vision without action is a daydream. Action without vision is a nightmare.” ? Japanese proverb.
This statement illustrates well the importance of vision, and a vision is only as good as the extent to which it is communicated effectively to those who must make it come alive. Vision gives purpose to an organization and its employees and meaning to daily tasks. Leaders establish integrity when communicating vision, walking the walk, and talking the talk. Some of the core behaviors that leaders use to communicate vision include showing empathy, demonstrating ethical decision-making, and focusing on planning and the intricacies of impact when action is taken. It is critical to involve others and communicate vision through many different methods and with a variety of strategies. This tactic gives people the opportunity to adjust, adapt, and embrace the change that is inherent in moving towards the future. An open communication model is imperative to the success of the leader and the organization.
Although managers and leaders have distinct roles within an organization, the most effective people will blend the functions and roles in their work. Management keeps the wheels turning, making sure the lights are on, that people get paid, and that everyone is meeting their targets. Leadership involves taking risks, changing things that require change for the growth of the organization, sharing one’s ideas and opinions, and exposing oneself to criticism. It takes both managers and leaders to keep an organization running and to move the organization into the future. If one person is both a manager and a leader, the organization benefits through efficiency and effectiveness.
A successful leader must be:
1) Known to those he or she hopes to lead?must be visible and approachable.
2) Expert in the development, execution, and evaluation of public relations plans.
3) Articulate with one-on-one conversation, small groups, or large audiences.
4) Capable of convincing all stakeholders of the possibilities inherent in the future.
5) A great listener, both inside and outside of the organization.
Leaders need to be keenly aware of their verbal and nonverbal communication styles. Having emotional intelligence in these areas can prevent chaos and support a flourishing organization.
Donnelly, G. F. (2003). How leadership works: Myths and theories. Five keys to successful nursing management. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
Fitzpatrick, M.A. (2003). Getting your team together. Five keys to successful nursing management. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
Gabor, D. (1994). Speaking your mind in 101 difficult situations. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kotter, J. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York: Free Press.
Kowalski, K., & Yoder-Wise, P. S. (2003). Five C’s of leadership. Nurse Leader, 1(5), 26-31.
Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
Select, Assess & Train. (2007). Non-verbal communication.
The Teal Trust. (n.d.). Our definition of leadership.
Ross, A., Wenzel, F. J., & Mitlyng, J. W. (2002). Leadership for the future: Core competencies in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
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